Activate Cisco IOU License in GNS3

Introduction: GNS3 is a powerful network simulation tool used by networking professionals for
testing and learning purposes. One of its features is the ability to run Cisco IOU (IOS on Unix) images for
virtualizing Cisco routers and switches. However, to use Cisco IOU images legally, you need to activate a
license. In this article, we’ll guide you through the process of activating a Cisco IOU license in GNS3 using

Step 1: Open Putty.exe

Putty is a terminal emulator that allows you to connect to remote systems via SSH. Open Putty on your local
machine to establish a connection to the GNS3 VM.

Step 2: Obtain IP Address and Login Credentials

Get the IP address of the GNS3 VM from the GNS3 interface. You’ll also need the username and password to access
the VM.

Coonect Ssh With Gns3

Step 3: Connect to GNS3 VM using Putty

Enter the IP address of the GNS3 VM in the “Host Name” field of Putty. Click “Open” to establish the SSH

Step 4: Provide Username and Password

When prompted, enter the username and password for the GNS3 VM. The default credentials are typically “gns3” for
both the username and password.

Step 5: Select Shell and Press Enter

Once logged in, select the shell option from the menu and press Enter to access the command line interface of
the GNS3 VM.

Step 6: Download Cisco IOU Keygen Script

Execute the following command to download the Cisco IOU Keygen script:


Step 7: Check Downloaded File

Run the “ls” command to list the files in the current directory. Verify that the file is

Step 8: Execute Keygen Script

Run the following command to execute the Cisco IOU Keygen script:

Run Get License

Run Get License

Step 9: Verify Output

After running the script, execute the “ls” command again to ensure that the iourc.txt file has been generated.

Step 10: View License Information

Use the “cat iourc.txt” command to view the contents of the iourc.txt file. Copy the text displayed in the

Step 11: Configure GNS3 Preferences

Apply Cisco IOU License

Apply Cisco IOU License

Open GNS3 and navigate to Edit > Preferences. Go to the “IOS on Unix” section and paste the copied text into
the appropriate field. Click “Apply” and then “OK” to save the changes.

Conclusion: By following these step-by-step instructions, you can easily activate a Cisco IOU
license in GNS3 using Putty. This allows you to legally use Cisco IOU images for network simulation and testing
purposes in your GNS3 environment.

gns3@gns3vm:~$ ls
gns3@gns3vm:~$ wget
gns3@gns3vm:~$ ls GNS3 iourc.txt
gns3@gns3vm:~$ python3
gns3@gns3vm:~$ cat iourc.txt
gns3vm = 73635fd3b0a13ad0;

Role-Based CLI Access: Admin, Operator, and Viewer Levels

In a Role-Based CLI Access environment, there are three distinct access levels: admin, operator, and viewer. Each level corresponds to a set of privileges and commands. Let’s explore each level in detail:

Admin Level:

The admin level has the highest privilege, granting full access to all commands and configurations. To define the admin level and create a user with admin privileges:

Router(config)# username admin privilege 15 secret [admin_password]

Once the admin level is defined, the user can enter the admin level with the following commands:

Username: admin
Password: [admin_password]

Router> enable
Router# configure terminal

Upon entering the above commands, the user gains access to the privileged exec mode with full administrative privileges.

Operator Level:

The operator level is designed for users who need to perform operational tasks without having administrative control. To define the operator level and create a user with operator privileges:

Router(config)# username operator privilege 5 secret [operator_password]

Users with operator privileges can execute specific commands related to network operations:

Username: operator
Password: [operator_password]

Router> enable
Router# show running-config

The above commands grant access to operational information without allowing configuration modifications.

Viewer Level:

The viewer level provides read-only access, allowing users to view the current system state without the ability to make any changes. To define the viewer level and create a user with viewer privileges:

Router(config)# username viewer privilege 1 secret [viewer_password]

Users with viewer privileges can execute commands to view network information:

Username: viewer
Password: [viewer_password]

Router> show interfaces
Router> show ip route

The above commands allow the user to view network interfaces and routing information without the ability to make configuration changes.

Verifying Role Level:

To verify the current role level, users can use the following command:

Router# show privilege

This command displays the current privilege level, allowing users to confirm their assigned role and associated access privileges.


Role Based Cli Access Admin, Operator, And Viewer Levels

Role-Based CLI Access Admin, Operator, and Viewer Levels

Definition of Role-Based CLI Access: Role-Based Command Line Interface (CLI) Access is a security feature implemented in network devices that allows administrators to define and assign specific roles or permissions to users based on their responsibilities. This approach enhances security by ensuring that users only have access to the commands and configurations necessary for their tasks.

Example of Role-Based CLI Access:

Consider a network scenario where there are different user roles such as “Administrator,” “Operator,” and “Viewer.” Each role has a specific set of commands and configurations associated with it. For instance:

# Administrators have full access to all commands.
# Operators can perform configurations related to network operations but not administrative tasks.
# Viewers have read-only access and can view the current configurations.

Configuration Example with Code:

Let’s take an example of a Cisco device using the IOS command-line interface. Assume we want to create three roles: “admin,” “operator,” and “viewer.”

# Define the roles
aaa new-model
aaa authentication login default local

# Create role-based access lists
privilege exec level 15 configure terminal
privilege exec level 5 show running-config
privilege exec level 1 show

# Create user roles and assign privileges
username admin privilege 15 secret <admin_password>
username operator privilege 5 secret <operator_password>
username viewer privilege 1 secret <viewer_password>

In the above configuration:

  • The “admin” user has full access (level 15).
  • The “operator” user has access to operational commands (level 5).
  • The “viewer” user has read-only access (level 1).

Benefits of Role-Based CLI Access:

  • Security Enhancement: Role-Based CLI Access minimizes the risk of unauthorized changes by restricting users to specific commands, reducing the attack surface.
  • Operational Control: It allows organizations to enforce a least privilege principle, granting users the minimum access required for their tasks.
  • Compliance: Role-based access controls help in meeting compliance requirements by ensuring that only authorized personnel can perform critical operations.
  • Audit Trails: With role-based access, it becomes easier to track who made what changes, aiding in troubleshooting and auditing.


Role-Based CLI Access is a crucial component of network security and management. By implementing this feature, organizations can strike a balance between providing necessary access to users and securing critical configurations. It enhances control, reduces the risk of human errors, and contributes to a more robust and secure network infrastructure. As network environments continue to evolve, adopting role-based access controls becomes imperative for maintaining the integrity and security of systems.

Actiive Tech Network Cisco Academy Dubai

Actiive Tech Network Cisco Academy Dubai


Configuration for GLBP

Before diving into the load balancing methods within GLBP, let’s start with the basic configuration of GLBP.

RouterA(config)# interface GigabitEthernet0/0
RouterA(config-if)# ip address
RouterA(config-if)# glbp 1 ip
RouterA(config-if)# glbp 1 priority 100
RouterA(config-if)# glbp 1 preempt

In this initial configuration, we’ve set up RouterA for GLBP with group 1, assigned it an IP address, set the virtual IP address, and configured a priority of 100, making it the initial Active Virtual Gateway (AVG). The “preempt” command ensures RouterA becomes AVG again when it recovers.

Load Balancing in GLBP

GLBP offers three load balancing methods: round robin, weighted, and host-dependent. Each method serves different network requirements. Let’s explore these methods and their configurations.

Round Robin Load Balancing

This is the default load balancing method in GLBP. In round robin, each virtual forwarder MAC address responds sequentially for the virtual IP address. It evenly distributes traffic among all active virtual forwarders. This is suitable for scenarios where all routers have similar capacities and should share traffic equally.

RouterA(config-if)# glbp 1 load-balancing round-robin

Weighted Load Balancing

In weighted load balancing, you assign weights to each device within the GLBP group. These weights define the ratio of load balancing between devices. This method allows you to allocate a larger weight to more powerful routers capable of handling heavier traffic loads. Weighted load balancing is particularly useful in heterogeneous network environments with routers of varying capacities.

RouterA(config-if)# glbp 1 load-balancing weighted
RouterA(config-if)# glbp 1 weighting 150
RouterB(config-if)# glbp 1 weighting 100

Host-Dependent Load Balancing

Host-dependent load balancing uses the host MAC address to determine which virtual forwarder MAC should handle the incoming packet. This method ensures that the host consistently uses the same virtual MAC address, as long as the number of virtual forwarders in the group remains constant. Host-dependent load balancing is suitable for applications where session persistence or stickiness is required, such as in some web applications.

RouterA(config-if)# glbp 1 load-balancing host-dependent


GLBP’s load balancing methods, including round robin, weighted, and host-dependent, offer a range of options to suit different network requirements. Understanding and configuring these methods is crucial for network professionals pursuing the CCNP ENCOR certification, as it enables efficient, resilient, and high-performing networks tailored to specific needs.


CCNP Master Class

CCNP Master Class

VTP Configuration Commands:

Task Command Syntax
Configure the VTP version vtp version {1 | 2 | 3}
Configure the VTP domain name vtp domain domain-name
Configure the VTP mode for a switch vtp mode { server | client | transparent | none}
Configure a switch to become the primary VTP server vtp primary

Switchport and EtherChannel Configuration Commands:

Task Command Syntax
Configure a switch port to actively establish a trunk link switchport mode dynamic desirable
Configure a switch port to respond to remote attempts to establish a trunk link switchport mode dynamic auto
Configure the member ports for a static EtherChannel channel-group etherchannel-id mode on
Configure the member ports for an LACP EtherChannel channel-group etherchannel-id mode {active | passive}
Configure the member ports for a PAgP EtherChannel channel-group etherchannel-id mode {auto | desirable} [non-silent]
Configure the LACP packet rate lacp rate {fast | slow}
Configure the minimum number of member links for the LACP EtherChannel to become active port-channel min-links min-links
Configure the maximum number of member links in an LACP EtherChannel lacp max-bundle max-links
Configure a switch’s LACP system priority lacp system-priority priority
Configure a switch’s LACP port priority lacp port-priority priority
Configure the EtherChannel load-balancing hash algorithm port-channel load-balance hash

Display Commands:

Task Command Syntax
Display the contents of all current access lists show access-list [access-list-number | access-list-name]
Display the VTP system settings show vtp status
Display the switch port DTP settings, native VLANs, and allowed VLANs show interface [interface-id] trunk
Display a brief summary update on EtherChannel interfaces show etherchannel summary
Display detailed information for the local EtherChannel interfaces and their remote peers show interface port-channel
Display information about LACP neighbors show lacp neighbor [detail]
Display the local LACP system identifier and priority show lacp system-id
Display the LACP counters for configured interfaces show lacp counters
Display information about PAgP neighbors show pagp neighbor
Display the PAgP counters for configured interfaces show pagp counters
Display the algorithm for load balancing network traffic based on the traffic type show etherchannel load-balance


ccna trainer in usa

ccna trainer in usa

In the ever-evolving landscape of cybersecurity, the need for skilled professionals who can safeguard networks and data has never been greater. The journey to becoming a cybersecurity expert often begins with certifications, and while there are various paths to choose from, one common thread among them is the fundamental knowledge of networking and routing. In this article, we will explore why a strong grasp of networking concepts is essential before pursuing any cybersecurity certification and why the Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA) stands out as a vital step in this journey.

The Foundation of Cybersecurity

Cybersecurity, at its core, is about protecting digital assets and systems from unauthorized access, attacks, and data breaches. These assets typically reside on computer networks, making networking knowledge a foundational requirement for cybersecurity professionals. Understanding how data flows, how devices communicate, and how networks are structured is paramount to identifying and mitigating security threats effectively.

Why Networking Knowledge Matters

  • Understanding Attack Surfaces: Network devices and protocols are potential entry points for cyber threats. Professionals with networking knowledge can identify vulnerabilities and implement appropriate safeguards, reducing the attack surface.
  • Traffic Analysis: Anomalies in network traffic can be early indicators of a security breach. Networking experts are adept at analyzing network traffic patterns to detect and respond to suspicious activities promptly.
  • Effective Defense Strategies: Cybersecurity measures often involve configuring firewalls, intrusion detection systems, and access control lists. A strong networking foundation is crucial for correctly configuring these devices to protect the network.
  • Incident Response: In the event of a security incident, understanding network logs and traffic is vital for incident responders. Knowledge of networking protocols helps pinpoint the source and impact of an attack.
  • Securing Cloud Environments: Many organizations are transitioning to cloud-based solutions. A grasp of networking fundamentals ensures secure cloud integration and data protection.

The CCNA Advantage

While there are several networking certifications available, Cisco’s CCNA stands out as an ideal choice for those embarking on a cybersecurity journey. Here’s why:

  • Comprehensive Networking Knowledge: CCNA covers a broad spectrum of networking topics, including routing, switching, security, and more. This knowledge is invaluable in building a strong foundation for cybersecurity.
  • Industry Recognition: Cisco is a global leader in networking technologies, and CCNA is a well-respected certification recognized by employers worldwide. Holding a CCNA demonstrates your commitment to networking excellence.
  • Hands-On Experience: CCNA emphasizes hands-on labs and practical exercises. This hands-on experience is invaluable for understanding how networking concepts apply in real-world scenarios, making it easier to tackle cybersecurity challenges.
  • Prerequisite for Higher Certifications: Many advanced cybersecurity certifications, such as Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP) or Certified Information Security Manager (CISM), require a solid networking foundation. CCNA fulfills this prerequisite.
  • Career Advancement: CCNA is an excellent entry point into the IT industry. It opens doors to various IT roles, including network administration, which can serve as stepping stones to cybersecurity positions.


In the world of cybersecurity, where threats are constantly evolving, a strong understanding of networking is indispensable. Networking knowledge provides the groundwork upon which robust cybersecurity strategies are built. Cisco’s CCNA certification offers an ideal path to acquiring this essential knowledge. By starting with CCNA, aspiring cybersecurity professionals can build a solid foundation that will not only pave the way for successful certification but also enhance their ability to protect networks and data from cyber threats, ensuring a safer digital world for all.

Online CCNA in Boston

Online CCNA in Boston


Freelancer IT Trainer Mr. Saeed Ahmad: Empowering Minds in Networking Through Expert Instruction

In the rapidly evolving world of technology, the demand for skilled IT professionals is soaring. To meet this growing need for expertise in networking, online courses have become a popular and accessible way for aspiring professionals to acquire essential skills. Among the many dedicated trainers in this field, one name stands out: Mr. Saeed Ahmad, a Cisco Netacad Certified and Expert Level Instructor who provides top-notch online networking courses as a freelancer.

Recognition and Awards

Mr. Saeed Ahmad’s journey as an IT instructor has been nothing short of exemplary. His dedication and commitment to his students have been acknowledged on multiple occasions through prestigious awards and recognition. Among the notable awards he has received are the “Instructor Excellence Expert” awards in 2015, 2016, and 2017, a testament to his consistent and outstanding performance as an instructor.

Additionally, in 2013 and 2017, Mr. Ahmad was honored for his long-standing service in the industry, celebrating his 5 and 10 years of service milestones, respectively. Such recognition speaks volumes about his unwavering passion for teaching and mentoring IT enthusiasts.

A Vast Array of Courses

One of the distinguishing features of Mr. Saeed Ahmad’s teaching repertoire is the broad range of courses he is eligible to instruct. The diverse selection includes courses ranging from basic networking essentials to advanced cybersecurity and programming. As a Cisco Netacad Certified instructor, his expertise extends to courses such as CCNA Cybersecurity Operations, CCNA Security, and CCNA R&S (Routing and Switching) series, which comprises several modules like “Connecting Networks,” “Introduction to Networks,” “Routing and Switching Essentials,” and “Scaling Networks.”

Apart from Cisco-specific courses, Mr. Ahmad’s proficiency spans across various other areas, including emerging technologies, entrepreneurship, IoT (Internet of Things) fundamentals, network security, and cloud security. His ability to teach a wide range of subjects makes him an invaluable resource for anyone looking to delve into the exciting world of IT.

A Passion for Empowering Learners

Mr. Saeed Ahmad’s success as a freelancer IT trainer can be attributed to his passion for empowering learners. His approach to instruction involves creating a nurturing and interactive learning environment where students feel encouraged to ask questions and explore concepts. His dedication to making complex topics more accessible, coupled with real-world examples, ensures that students not only grasp theoretical knowledge but also gain practical insights.

As an Expert Level Instructor, Mr. Ahmad’s teaching methods are informed by years of experience and in-depth expertise in the networking domain. This wealth of knowledge allows him to effectively guide students through the intricacies of IT, ensuring they gain not just the skills needed for exams but also the confidence to apply their knowledge in real-world scenarios.

Embracing the Advantages of Freelancing

Embracing the flexibility and freedom that comes with freelancing, Mr. Saeed Ahmad has been able to reach a diverse audience of learners worldwide. Online platforms have allowed him to transcend geographical barriers, making quality IT education accessible to individuals from all walks of life. This global reach not only benefits students but also enriches the learning experience as diverse perspectives are shared and discussed.


In a rapidly advancing digital landscape, the role of IT trainers like Mr. Saeed Ahmad is paramount. His expertise as a Cisco Netacad Certified and Expert Level Instructor, combined with a multitude of awards recognizing his excellence, showcases his unwavering commitment to providing top-notch online networking courses. Through his passionate and empowering teaching approach, learners are equipped with the skills and knowledge needed to excel in the competitive world of IT. As the demand for skilled IT professionals continues to grow, Mr. Ahmad’s contributions as a freelancer IT trainer remain instrumental in shaping the future of the industry, one student at a time.

Freelancer IT Trainer

Freelancer IT Trainer

CCNA stands for Cisco Certified Network Associate. It is an entry-level certification offered by Cisco Systems, a leading provider of networking and telecommunications equipment. CCNA validates the knowledge and skills required to install, configure, operate, and troubleshoot small to medium-sized networks.

CCNA is important for several reasons:

1. Industry Recognition: CCNA is recognized worldwide as a valuable certification in the IT industry, particularly in the field of networking. It demonstrates a strong foundation in network fundamentals and Cisco technologies.

2. Career Advancement: CCNA certification can open doors to various career opportunities, including network engineering, network administration, and technical support roles. It provides a solid foundation for further Cisco certifications and career growth in the networking field.

3. Enhanced Skills and Knowledge: Pursuing CCNA helps individuals develop a comprehensive understanding of networking concepts, protocols, and best practices. It equips professionals with the skills needed to configure and troubleshoot networks effectively.

As for job opportunities and salary ranges, here are some statistics:

– As of July 2023, there are 6,047 CCNA job listings in the United States. The estimated total pay for a Network Engineer (CCNA) is $91,024 per year, with an average salary of $81,606 per year.

– The average CCNA salary in the USA is $82,500 per year or $39.66 per hour, based on 659 salaries.

– The average annual salary for a CCNA in the USA is $77,309, slightly higher than the national average of $73,924.

– Entry-level Network Engineers with CCNA certification can expect an estimated salary range of $69,000 to $87,400 per year.

– There are over 185,000 CCNA job listings in the United States, with thousands of new listings added regularly.

These statistics demonstrate the demand for professionals with CCNA certification and the competitive salary ranges associated with CCNA-related roles.

In summary, CCNA certification provides industry recognition, enhances skills and knowledge, and offers numerous job opportunities in the field of networking. It serves as a stepping stone for career advancement and provides a solid foundation for further Cisco certifications.

  1. show running-config: This command displays the current configuration of the device, including all the configured settings.
  2. show ip protocols: This command displays information about the IP routing protocols enabled on the device, including OSPF.
  3. show ip ospf interface: This command shows detailed information about OSPF interfaces, including their state, cost, and other parameters.
  4. show ip ospf interface type number: This command is used to display specific information about a particular OSPF interface based on its type and number.
  5. show ip ospf interface brief: This command provides a summary of OSPF interfaces, including their interface ID, state, and IP addresses.
  6. show ip ospf neighbor: This command displays information about OSPF neighbors, including their IP addresses, priority, and state.
  7. show ip ospf neighbor type number: This command shows specific information about a particular OSPF neighbor based on its type and number.
  8. show ip ospf database: This command provides information about the OSPF link-state database, including the contents of the LSAs (Link-State Advertisements).
  9. show ip ospf rib: This command displays the OSPF routing information base, which contains the routes learned through OSPF.
  10. show ip route: This command shows the IP routing table, including all the routes learned by the device.
  11. show ip route ospf: This command displays the subset of IP routes in the routing table that were learned through OSPF.
  12. show ip route subnet mask: This command filters the IP routing table to display routes matching a specific subnet mask.
  13. show ip route | section subnet: This command filters the IP routing table to display the section of routes that contain a specific subnet.

Remember, these commands may vary depending on the device’s operating system and software version. It’s always best to refer to the device’s documentation or consult with a network administrator for specific command usage and interpretation.

ospf verification commands

ospf verification commands


Baseline Equipment Bundle:

  • 2 x ISR4221/K9 Routers
  • 2 x WS-C2960+24TC-L Catalyst switches
  • 1 wireless router (generic brand) with WPA2 support
  • Ethernet patch cables
  • PCs – minimum system requirements:
    • CPU: Intel Pentium 4, 2.53 GHz or equivalent
    • OS: Microsoft Windows 7, Microsoft Windows 8.1, Microsoft Windows 10, Ubuntu 14.04 LTS, macOS High Sierra and Mojave
    • RAM: 4 GB
    • Storage: 500 MB of free disk space
    • Display resolution: 1024 x 768
    • Language fonts supporting Unicode encoding (if viewing in languages other than English)
    • Latest video card drivers and operating system updates
  • Internet connection for lab and study PCs
  • Optional equipment for connecting to a WLAN:
    • 1 printer or integrated printer/scanner/copier for the class to share
    • Smartphones and tablets are desirable for use with the labs


  • Cisco IOS versions:
    • Routers: Version IOS XE 16.0 or higher, IP Base feature set
    • Switches: Version IOS 15.0 or higher, lanbaseK9 feature set
  • Cisco Packet Tracer Stable release: 8.2 download
  • Open-source server software:
    • For various services and protocols, such as Telnet, SSH, HTTP, DHCP, FTP, TFTP, etc.
  • Tera Term source SSH client software for lab PCs
  • Oracle VirtualBox, most recent version
  • Wireshark version 2.5 or higher
InterVLAN Routing Using Layer III Switch with SVI

InterVLAN Routing Using Layer III Switch with SVI