Baseline Equipment Bundle:

  • 2 x ISR4221/K9 Routers
  • 2 x WS-C2960+24TC-L Catalyst switches
  • 1 wireless router (generic brand) with WPA2 support
  • Ethernet patch cables
  • PCs – minimum system requirements:
    • CPU: Intel Pentium 4, 2.53 GHz or equivalent
    • OS: Microsoft Windows 7, Microsoft Windows 8.1, Microsoft Windows 10, Ubuntu 14.04 LTS, macOS High Sierra and Mojave
    • RAM: 4 GB
    • Storage: 500 MB of free disk space
    • Display resolution: 1024 x 768
    • Language fonts supporting Unicode encoding (if viewing in languages other than English)
    • Latest video card drivers and operating system updates
  • Internet connection for lab and study PCs
  • Optional equipment for connecting to a WLAN:
    • 1 printer or integrated printer/scanner/copier for the class to share
    • Smartphones and tablets are desirable for use with the labs


  • Cisco IOS versions:
    • Routers: Version IOS XE 16.0 or higher, IP Base feature set
    • Switches: Version IOS 15.0 or higher, lanbaseK9 feature set
  • Cisco Packet Tracer Stable release: 8.2 download
  • Open-source server software:
    • For various services and protocols, such as Telnet, SSH, HTTP, DHCP, FTP, TFTP, etc.
  • Tera Term source SSH client software for lab PCs
  • Oracle VirtualBox, most recent version
  • Wireshark version 2.5 or higher
InterVLAN Routing Using Layer III Switch with SVI

InterVLAN Routing Using Layer III Switch with SVI


To understand how to work with inter-VLAN routing using Layer 3 switch SVI (Switched Virtual Interface) interface.

Steps to Configure Inter-VLAN Routing:

1. Configure VLANs:

Start by creating the VLANs you want to use for inter-VLAN routing. Assign unique VLAN IDs and assign the required interfaces to their respective VLANs.

2. Enable IP routing:

Enable IP routing on the Layer 3 switch. This allows the switch to route traffic between VLANs.

3. Configure SVI interfaces:

Create SVI interfaces for each VLAN that requires inter-VLAN routing. An SVI acts as a virtual interface representing a VLAN on the Layer 3 switch. Assign an IP address to each SVI interface within the corresponding VLAN subnet.

4. Enable SVI interfaces:

Enable each SVI interface to bring it up and allow it to participate in inter-VLAN routing.

5. Configure default gateway:

Specify the default gateway IP address on the Layer 3 switch. This is typically the IP address of the router that connects the switch to other networks.

6. Add static routes:

If there are additional networks beyond the connected VLANs, add static routes on the Layer 3 switch to ensure proper routing between those networks and the VLANs.


Let’s assume we have a Layer 3 switch with two VLANs, VLAN 10 and VLAN 20. We want to enable inter-VLAN routing between these VLANs using SVI interfaces.

1. Configure VLANs:

VLAN 10: Assign interfaces Fa0/1, Fa0/2 to VLAN 10.
VLAN 20: Assign interfaces Fa0/3, Fa0/4 to VLAN 20.

2. Enable IP routing:

Enable IP routing on the Layer 3 switch.

3. Configure SVI interfaces:

VLAN 10 SVI: Configure interface VLAN 10 with IP address
VLAN 20 SVI: Configure interface VLAN 20 with IP address

4. Enable SVI interfaces:

Activate VLAN 10 SVI and VLAN 20 SVI.

5. Configure default gateway:

Set the default gateway IP address to the IP address of the connected router 

6. Add static routes:

If there are additional networks beyond VLANs 10 and 20, add static routes to those 
networks via the Layer 3 switch.

With this configuration, devices connected to VLAN 10 can communicate with devices in VLAN 20 by using the SVI interfaces as the gateway. For example, a device with IP address in VLAN 10 can communicate with a device with IP address in VLAN 20 by sending traffic to their respective SVI IP addresses.

By following these steps and configuring the necessary settings, you can achieve inter-VLAN routing using Layer 3 switch SVI interfaces.

Posted by Saeed Ahmad, CCNAGuru
InterVLAN Routing Using Layer III Switch with SVI

InterVLAN Routing Using Layer III Switch with SVI


Spanning Tree Path Cost

Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) is a network protocol that ensures loop-free topologies in Ethernet networks. One of the key elements in STP is the concept of path cost, which determines the best path for data forwarding in the network. Path cost is assigned to each network link based on its speed. The following table provides the default STP port costs for different link speeds:

Link Speed Short-Mode STP Cost Long-Mode STP Cost
10 Mbps 100 2,000,000
100 Mbps 19 200,000
1 Gbps 4 20,000
10 Gbps 2 2,000
20 Gbps 1 1,000
100 Gbps 1 200
1 Tbps 1 20
10 Tbps 1 2

Understanding Spanning Tree Path Cost

Spanning Tree Path Cost represents the cost associated with transmitting data over a particular network link. The STP cost ensures that the network path selection prefers higher-speed links over lower-speed links. The lower the cost, the more desirable the path becomes for forwarding traffic.

In Short-Mode, which is the default mode for STP, the path costs are calculated based on the values mentioned in the “Short-Mode STP Cost” column in the table. However, in some instances, the “Long-Mode STP Cost” is used for path cost calculation. This is typically encountered in Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP) or Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP) scenarios.

It is important to note that the default STP path costs can be modified in certain network equipment to suit specific requirements or to influence path selection.


Understanding Spanning Tree Path Cost is crucial in building efficient and loop-free Ethernet networks. By assigning appropriate costs to

network links based on their speeds, Spanning Tree Protocol ensures optimal path selection. The default path costs provided in the table serve as a reference, but it is important to verify and adjust these values as needed in your specific network environment.

To configure and monitor OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) on a Cisco router, you can use various commands. These commands allow you to enable OSPF, modify OSPF settings for interfaces, view OSPF information, and more. Below is a list of commonly used OSPF commands along with their details:

Command Details
router ospf 123 Turns on OSPF process number 123. The process ID is any value between 1 and 65,535. The process ID does not equal the OSPF area.
network area 0 OSPF advertises interfaces, not networks. Uses the wildcard mask to determine which interfaces to advertise. The command shown reads: Any interface with an address of 172.16.10.x is to be put into Area 0.
ip ospf priority 50 Changes the OSPF priority for an interface to 50.
bandwidth 128 Changes the bandwidth of an interface to 128 kbps.
ip ospf cost 1564 Changes the cost to a value of 1564.
ip ospf hello-interval 20 Changes the Hello interval timer to 20 seconds.
ip ospf dead-interval 80 Changes the Dead interval timer to 80 seconds.
ip route s0/0/0 Creates a static default route pointing out the Serial 0/0/0 interface. This route will have an administrative distance of 0.
default-information originate Sets the default route to be propagated to all OSPF routers.
show ip protocol Displays parameters for all routing protocols running on the router.
show ip route Displays the complete IP routing table.
show ip ospf Displays basic OSPF information for all OSPF processes running on the router.
show ip ospf interface Displays OSPF information as it relates to all interfaces.
show ip ospf neighbor List all the OSPF neighbors and their states.
show ip ospf neighbor detail Displays a detailed list of neighbors.

Command Reference OSPF

Monitoring and analyzing traffic on Cisco router interfaces is essential for network administrators to ensure optimal performance and troubleshoot any issues. In this article, we will explore various parameters and methods to check incoming and outgoing traffic on Cisco router interfaces.

1. Cisco IOS Command-Line Interface (CLI)

The Cisco IOS Command-Line Interface (CLI) provides several commands to monitor traffic on router interfaces. Here are some commonly used commands:

a) Show Interface

Router# show interface [interface_name]

This command displays detailed information about the specified interface, including traffic statistics such as input/output packets, bytes, errors, and drops. Replace [interface_name] with the actual interface name, e.g., GigabitEthernet0/0. The output will show the current traffic load on the interface, allowing you to identify any congestion or abnormal traffic patterns.

b) Show IP Traffic

Router# show ip traffic

This command provides an overview of IP traffic statistics on the router, including packet counts, routing protocol information, and traffic breakdown by protocol. It allows you to monitor overall traffic trends and identify any unusual traffic patterns or protocol-specific issues.

c) Show Interface Counters

Router# show interfaces counters

This command displays the interface counters, including packet drops, ignored packets, collisions, and other interface-specific statistics. By monitoring these counters, you can identify potential issues such as packet loss, excessive errors, or interface congestion.

2. SNMP Monitoring

Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) allows for remote monitoring and management of network devices. SNMP-based tools can be used to monitor traffic on Cisco router interfaces. SNMP provides various OIDs (Object Identifiers) to retrieve traffic-related information. Here are some commonly used OIDs:

OID: - ifInOctets (Incoming Octets)
OID: - ifOutOctets (Outgoing Octets)

You can use SNMP monitoring tools like Cacti, Zabbix, or PRTG to graphically monitor interface traffic based on these OIDs. These tools can provide real-time and historical traffic data, allowing you to analyze traffic trends, set alerts for abnormal traffic behavior, and perform capacity planning.

3. NetFlow or IPFIX

NetFlow and IPFIX are traffic monitoring technologies that provide detailed visibility into network traffic flows. By enabling NetFlow or IPFIX on the router, you can collect and analyze information about incoming and outgoing traffic on each interface. This includes details such as source and destination IP addresses, port numbers, protocol information, and traffic volume.

NetFlow and IPFIX data can be exported to a NetFlow collector or analysis tool for further analysis and visualization. Some popular NetFlow collectors include PRTG, SolarWinds NetFlow Traffic Analyzer, and Cisco Stealthwatch.


Monitoring incoming and outgoing traffic on Cisco router interfaces is crucial for maintaining network performance and troubleshooting issues effectively. By using the Cisco IOS CLI commands, SNMP monitoring, and traffic analysis tools like NetFlow or IPFIX, network administrators can gain valuable insights into traffic patterns, identify anomalies, and make informed decisions to optimize network performance.


Understanding Administrative Distance in Cisco Routers: Importance and AD Values

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Administrative Distance (AD) in Cisco Routers


The administrative distance (AD) is a numerical value assigned to different routing protocols in Cisco routers. It determines the preference or trustworthiness of routes when multiple routing protocols are present.


The purpose of administrative distance is to select the best route among multiple available routes to reach a destination. By assigning different AD values to routing protocols, network administrators can influence the route selection process and ensure that the most reliable and optimal paths are chosen.

Floating Static Routes

Floating static routes are static routes with higher administrative distance values compared to the primary routes. They serve as backup routes that become active only when the primary routes fail or become unavailable. Floating static routes provide redundancy and help ensure network availability in case of primary route failures.

Examples of Routes

Routing Protocol Administrative Distance (AD)
Connected Interface 0
Static 1
eBGP 20
EIGRP internal 90
IGRP 100
OSPF 110
IS-IS 115
RIP 120
EIGRP external 170
iBGP 200
Unknown 255

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Récompense de niveau expert Cisco Netacad

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Syslog is a protocol used by network devices to send event messages to a logging server. Configuring Syslog levels on your Cisco devices can help you manage your network more efficiently by providing detailed event logs that can be used to troubleshoot issues and monitor network performance. In this article, we will guide you through the process of configuring and verifying Syslog levels on your Cisco devices.

Step-by-Step Guide

Follow these steps to configure and verify Syslog levels on your Cisco devices:

  1. Log in to the CLI (command line interface) of your Cisco device.
  2. Enter global configuration mode by typing the following command: config t
  3. Enter the following command to set the Syslog server IP address: logging host <IP address>
  4. Set the Syslog facility level by entering the following command: logging facility <level>
  5. Configure the Syslog level for each logging destination by entering the following command: logging trap <level>
  6. Save your configuration by entering the following command: write memory
  7. Verify your configuration by entering the following command: show logging

Understanding Syslog Levels

Syslog levels range from 0 to 7, with 0 being the most critical level and 7 being the least critical. The following table describes the Syslog levels:

Level Description
0 Emergency: System is unusable
1 Alert: Action must be taken immediately
2 Critical: Critical conditions
3 Error: Error conditions
4 Warning: Warning conditions
5 Notice: Normal but significant condition
6 Informational: Informational messages
7 Debugging: Debugging messages


syslog Severity Level

syslog Severity Level