Types of Malware

Posted: 31st May 2020 by ccna7guru in ITN


  • Adware is usually distributed by downloading online software.
  • Adware can display unsolicited advertising using pop-up web browser windows, new toolbars, or unexpectedly redirect a webpage to a different website.
  • Pop-up windows may be difficult to control as new windows can pop-up faster than the user can close them.


  • Ransomware typically denies a user access to their files by encrypting the files and then displaying a message demanding a ransom for the decryption key.
  • Users without up-to-date backups must pay the ransom to decrypt their files.
  • Payment is usually made using wire transfer or crypto currencies such as Bitcoin.


  • Rootkits are used by threat actors to gain administrator account-level access to a computer.
  • They are very difficult to detect because they can alter firewall, antivirus protection, system files, and even OS commands to conceal their presence.
  • They can provide a backdoor to threat actors giving them access to the PC, and allowing them to upload files, and install new software to be used in a DDoS attack.
  • Special rootkit removal tools must be used to remove them, or a complete OS re-install may be required.


  • Similar to adware, but used to gather information about the user and send to threat actors without the user’s consent.
  • Spyware can be a low threat, gathering browsing data, or it can be a high threat capturing personal and financial information.


  • A worm is a self-replicating program that propagates automatically without user actions by exploiting vulnerabilities in legitimate software.
  • It uses the network to search for other victims with the same vulnerability.
  • The intent of a worm is usually to slow or disrupt network operations.