Posted: 1st June 2020 by ccna7guru in ITN

VTP version 3 provides some significant benefits to the network administrator:

  • The ability to create a primary server was added. In VTP versions 1 and 2, all VTP server switches are equal; any one of them may add, remove, or rename VLANs and change their state. In VTP version 3, only the primary server can do this. There can be only one primary server present in a VTP domain. The role of a primary server is to be in a runtime state. It is not a part of the configuration; rather, this state is requested in privileged EXEC mode and is relinquished whenever another switch attempts to become the primary server, or when the switch is reloaded.
  • VTP version 3 has the ability to hide the VTP password. On a VTP version 1 or 2 switch, issuing the command show vtp password will show the password to you in plaintext. VTP version 3 allows you to specify that the password be hidden in the output, preventing the password from being inadvertently or maliciously divulged.
  • VTP version 3 can propagate information about extended range VLANs; These are VLANs numbered between 1006 and 4094. To support these VLANs with VTP version 1 or 2, all switches have to be in Transparent or Off mode and the VLANs must be configured manually on a switch-by-switch basis.
  • VTP version 3 only supports pruning for normal-range VLANs.
  • VTP version 3 supports propagating Private VLAN information. As with extended-range VLANs, the lack of PVLAN support in VTP version 2 required that all switches be in Transparent mode and manually configured at each switch.
  • VTP version 3 added support for opaque databases. In other words, VTP version 3 can transport more than just the VLAN database between switches. The only option at this time is to share the Multiple Spanning Tree (MSTP) database, but room was left for expansion.
  • Regardless of the VTP operating mode, a VTP domain must first be set before configuring VTP version 3.
  • VTP version 3 is backwards compatible with VTP version 2 for normal range VLANs only; at the boundary of the two protocols, a VTP version 3 switch will send out both version 3 and version 2-compatible messages. Version 2 messages received by a version 3 switch are discarded.

Types of Malware

Posted: 31st May 2020 by ccna7guru in ITN


  • Adware is usually distributed by downloading online software.
  • Adware can display unsolicited advertising using pop-up web browser windows, new toolbars, or unexpectedly redirect a webpage to a different website.
  • Pop-up windows may be difficult to control as new windows can pop-up faster than the user can close them.


  • Ransomware typically denies a user access to their files by encrypting the files and then displaying a message demanding a ransom for the decryption key.
  • Users without up-to-date backups must pay the ransom to decrypt their files.
  • Payment is usually made using wire transfer or crypto currencies such as Bitcoin.


  • Rootkits are used by threat actors to gain administrator account-level access to a computer.
  • They are very difficult to detect because they can alter firewall, antivirus protection, system files, and even OS commands to conceal their presence.
  • They can provide a backdoor to threat actors giving them access to the PC, and allowing them to upload files, and install new software to be used in a DDoS attack.
  • Special rootkit removal tools must be used to remove them, or a complete OS re-install may be required.


  • Similar to adware, but used to gather information about the user and send to threat actors without the user’s consent.
  • Spyware can be a low threat, gathering browsing data, or it can be a high threat capturing personal and financial information.


  • A worm is a self-replicating program that propagates automatically without user actions by exploiting vulnerabilities in legitimate software.
  • It uses the network to search for other victims with the same vulnerability.
  • The intent of a worm is usually to slow or disrupt network operations.

Router as DHCP Server

Posted: 30th May 2020 by ccna7guru in ITN

Step I: Create the dhcp pool by Name
Router(config)#ip dhcp pool pool1

Step II: Assign network of IP address

Step III: Assign a default gateway to that above mentioned pool

Step IV: Assign a dns to that above mentioned pool

default-router Default routers
dns-server Set name server
exit Exit from DHCP pool configuration mode
network Network number and mask
no Negate a command or set its defaults

Step V: Exclude any IP from above Assign network of IP address
Router(config)#ip dhcp excluded-address

Router#configure terminal
Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.
Router(config)#ip dhcp pool pool1
Router(config)#ip dhcp excluded-address
Router(config)#interface fastEthernet 0/0
Router(config-if)#ip address
Router(config-if)#no shutdown
%LINK-5-CHANGED: Interface FastEthernet0/0, changed state to up
%LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface FastEthernet0/0, changed state to up
%SYS-5-CONFIG_I: Configured from console by console
Router#show ip dhcp binding
IP address Client-ID/ Lease expiration Type
Hardware address 00D0.BCE1.6370 — Automatic

NetAcad Digital Badges

Posted: 10th May 2020 by ccna7guru in ITN

A digital badge is a verified, portable and data-rich digital representations of demonstrated skills, learning outcome, achievement or experience.

NetAcad Digital Badges
A digital badge is a
Academy Badges
The Benefits of Networking Academy Badges
Two Types of Networking Academy
Earning & Accepting a Networking Academy Badge
Information In A Digital Badge
Information digital badge
verification digital badge
Data richness Digital Badge
FY20 NetAcad Badge Availability
Digital Badge Additional resources
Cisco Digital Badge

Lab – Install Wireshark

Posted: 24th April 2020 by ccna7guru in ITN


Wireshark has become the industry standard packet-sniffer program used by network engineers. This open source software is available for many different operating systems, including Windows, Mac, and Linux. In this lab, you will download and install the Wireshark software program on your PC.

Note: Before downloading Wireshark, check with your instructor about the software download policy of your academy.

Step 1: Download Wireshark.

  1. Wireshark can be downloaded from www.wireshark.org.
    1. Choose the software version you need based on your PC’s architecture and operating system. For instance, if you have a 64-bit PC running Windows, choose Windows Installer (64-bit).

After making a selection, the download should start. The location of the downloaded file depends on the browser and operating system that you use. For Windows users, the default location is the Downloads folder.

Step 2: Install Wireshark.

  1. The downloaded file is named Wireshark-win64-x.x.x.exe, where x represents the version number if you downloaded the 64bit version. Double-click the file to start the installation process.

Respond to any security messages that may display on your screen. If you already have a copy of Wireshark on your PC, you will be prompted to uninstall the old version before installing the new version. It is recommended that you remove the old version of Wireshark prior to installing another version. Click Yes to uninstall the previous version of Wireshark.

  • If this is your first time to install Wireshark, or after you have completed the uninstall process, you will navigate to the Wireshark Setup wizard. Click Next.
    • Continue advancing through the installation process. Click I Agree when the License Agreement window displays.
    • Keep the default settings on the Choose Components window and click Next.
    • Choose your desired shortcut options and click Next.
    • You can change the installation location of Wireshark, but unless you have limited disk space, it is recommended that you keep the default location. Click Next to continue.
    • To capture live network data, Npcap must be installed on your PC. If Npcap is already installed on your PC, the Install check box will be unchecked. If your installed version of Npcap is older than the version that comes with Wireshark, it is recommended that you allow the newer version to be installed by clicking the Install Npcap x.x.x (version number) check box. Click Next to continue.
    • Do NOT install USBPcap for normal traffic capture. Do NOT select the checkbox to install USBPcap. USBPcap is experimental, and it could cause USB problems on your PC. Click Install to continue.
    • Wireshark starts installing its files and displays with the status of the installation.
    • In a separate window, accept the license agreement in the Npcap Setup Wizard if installing Npcap. Click I Agree to continue. Click Install to install Npcap. Click Next to finish the Npcap installation and click Finish to exit the Npcap installation.
    • Click Next when the Wireshark installation is complete.
    • Click Finish to complete the Wireshark install process. Reboot the computer if necessary.

MAC Address Table

Posted: 21st April 2020 by ccna7guru in SRWE

The MAC address table is responsible for identifying the switch ports and VLANs with which a device is associated. A switch builds the MAC address table by examining the source MAC address for the traffic that it receives. This information is then maintained to shrink the collision domain (point-to-point communication between devices and switches) by reducing the amount of unknown unicast flooding.

The MAC address table is displayed with the command show mac address-table [address mac-address | dynamic | vlan vlan-id]. The optional keywords with this command provide the following benefits:

address mac-address – Displays entries that match the explicit MAC address. This command could be beneficial on switches with hundreds of ports.

dynamic Displays entries that are dynamically learned and are not statically set or burned in on the switch.

vlanvlan-id – Displays entries that matches the specified VLAN.

Change Host Name

Posted: 20th April 2020 by ccna7guru in ITN

Change Host Name
1- Open the Packet Tracer
2- Place a Router-PT + Laptop / PC
3- Connect PC RS-232 port to Console Port using Console Cable
4- Click at PC-> Desktop-> Terminal -> Press [OK]
Do you wanna configure y/n: N

Router(config)#hostname CCNA

Router Mode

Posted: 20th April 2020 by ccna7guru in ITN

Router Ports:
1- Console Port
for console session
password recovery
basic configuration
2- Serial Port
to remote access/ ssh telnet
3- Ethernet Port
to remote access ssh telnet
4- Aux Port
to remote access / modem

We have mode of router
1- User Exec Mode

2- User Privelege Mode
Router> enable
Router# # root / administrator in Linux

3- Global Configuration Mode
Router# config terminal
4- Other Mode
interface mode
dhcp mode
vlan mode
router mode


Posted: 19th April 2020 by ccna7guru in ITN

CCNAv7: Introduction to Networks (ITN)
The first course in the CCNA curriculum introduces the architectures, models, protocols,and networking elements that connect users, devices, applications and data through the Internet and across modern computer networks – including IP addressing and Ethernet fundamentals. By the end of the course, students can build simple local area networks (LAN) that integrate IP addressing schemes, foundational network security, and perform basic configurations for routers and switches.
CCNAv7: Switching, Routing, and Wireless Essentials (SRWE)
The second course in the CCNA curriculum focuses on switching technologies and router operations that support small-to-medium business networks and includes wireless local area networks (WLAN) and security concepts. Students learn key switching and routing concepts. They can perform basic network configuration and troubleshooting, identify and mitigate LAN security threats, and configure and secure a basic WLAN.
CCNAv7: Enterprise Networking, Security, and Automation (ENSA)
The third course in the CCNA curriculum describes the architectures and considerations related to designing, securing, operating, and troubleshooting enterprise networks. This course covers wide area network (WAN) technologies and quality of service (QoS) mechanisms used for secure remote access along with the introduction of software-defined networking, virtualization, and automation concepts that support the digitalization of networks. Students gain skills to configure and troubleshoot enterprise networks, and learn to identify and protect against cybersecurity threats. They are introduced to network management tools and learn key concepts of software-defined networking, including controller-based architectures and how application programming interfaces (APIs) enable network automation.

By the end of the CCNA course series, students gain practical, hands-on experience preparing them for the CCNA certification exam and career-ready skills for associate-level roles in the Information & Communication Technologies (ICT) industry.